Pacific Island Countries face an enormous challenge in promoting rural electrification. This is demonstrated by the fact that 70% of the region’s population still lacks access to electricity, the markets in pacific island countries are small and dispersed, and that rural communities are often of low population densities and isolated. In addressing this challengers and promoting rural electrification projects in the region, Energy planners always ensure that the most cost-effective options are considered.
In 2006, SOPAC conducted an economic study to assess the economic and financial viability of a number of technologically proven renewable energy options such as biofuel-powered generators for rural electrification in Pacific Island Countries. Findings showed that Interest in using feedstocks especially coconut oil as a biofuel in Pacific Island Countries only began recently, and successful trials in
For the next set of questions, we would again appreciate if you could share your views and opinions with regard to some of the issues with biofuel and rural electrification:
Question 1: What is the current scenario regarding rural electrification projects in your country and how is the biofuel component factored in or the potentials in biofuel activities that should be included in project?
Question 2: What are some of the challengers that exist with rural electrification projects in your country and in your opinion or from your experience, what are some of the potentials, advantages, and challengers that biofuel initiated project have (or may have) with rural electrification?
Question 3: What are the mechanisms and activities implemented or that should be implemented in order to mitigate the challengers of biofuel electrification project in your country?
Summaries of Answers to Question 2
Biofuels and Rural Electrification:
Rural electrification projects in Pacific Island countries is one area of interest and an area where energy planners face a great deal of challenge considering that rural communities are often of low population densities, are isolated and lack economic income opportunities to sustain community projects. The following is a summary of opinions and experiences of rural electrification projects and biofuels in 6
Q1: What is the current scenario regarding rural electrification projects in your country and how is the biofuel component factored in or the potentials in biofuel activities that should be included in project?
Rural Electrification has been an on-going activity in terms of Rural Development Projects in
Interest in biofuel projects to outer islands is seen as feasible as the cost of fuel in the islands is always expensive and also taking into account the difficulties in shipping services. However detailed survey should be carried out before any biofuel project is implemented. These days generators for biofuel are available and diesel need not be transported into remote areas if they make their own bio fuel
Currently the Fiji Department of Energy are setting up 6 biodiesel processing plants around the rural and outer islands to produce biodiesel for their generators from coconut and sell the other downstream products, like soap, copra meal and animal feed or manure.
Rural electrification projects in
The current scenario in biofuel for rural electrification projects in
It is unlikely that biofuels will play a significant role in rural electrification in
The current scenario in the Solomon islands regarding rural electrification projects is minimal except for few donor agency projects in rural community school based on solar energy .There is no emphasis on the use of bio -fuels as yet in these projects coming in from the national government or with donor agencies though the potential is there . Coconut Oil (CNO) as a base raw material for CNO biodiesel to be used as fuel for generating electricity in rural communities is a viable prospect and should be supported and include in these rural electrification
Previously, rural electrification projects were done on ad hoc basis. However, they are currently developing a Rural Electrification Master Plan (REMP) which will be ready to be submitted to the cabinet for their blessing in the near future. There are a number of sites that has been chosen for biofuel projects and is awaiting funding for implementation.
Q2: What are some of the challengers that exist with rural electrification projects in your country and in your opinion or from your experience, what are some of the potentials, advantages, and challengers that biofuel initiated project have (or may have) with rural electrification?
Rural Electrification projects usually has a lot of challenges when taken on the communal basis where major issues experienced from past projects centres around the poor management of the project from the communities in not having resources and means in place to ensure the continual running of the project.
Introducing any biofuel project for rural electrification, will face similar challengers where the following issues need addressing – the skill level in the community, labour force and income generating opportunities from the project, the availability of sufficient feedstock and the cost of operations.
Apart from that the main challenge is the commercialization of the rural mindset to take on a new brand of community oil based industry in their midst. The resource utilization to realize their full benefits, socially, culturally and economically, can be harnessed and generate huge rural sector renaissance and employment opportunities.
Challengers faced in rural electrification projects with biofuel will require technical know-how from the production side. At present, funding problem is the main hurdle to get over. Having got over these, advantages attached to available home lighting/energy at a touch of a button will greatly improve living standards in terms of improvement to homestead chores, perhaps at a much lower cost to present operating PV system. Other spin-offs resulting from availability could be imagined in a
Not much research has been carried out in
There are substantial challenges that exist in
The challenge that the mill may face will be on the issue of copra world market prices – where farmers may get tempted not to sell their copra to their local mill if copra prices are high.
The main challenges with most remote electrification scheme in
Q3: What are the mechanisms and activities implemented or that should be implemented in order to mitigate the challengers of biofuel electrification project in your country?
Detail cost analyses is one area that’s need to be looked into and take into account the entire social and economic benefits/costing. Food security is also an area that should be seriously considered when introducing biofuel.
The policy paper on the mandation of biofuel usage to boost tradeability of biofuel has been endorsed by cabinet last year for a 10% vol by vol replacement. There are 5 projects at the moment; cassava ethanol, cane ethanol, coconut biodiesel, jatropha biodiesel and seaweed ethanol. Total project cost is around 2 billion dollars, but at the moment most of these projects are still in the implementation phase. They are all projected to commence in 2009 and in full production by 2010.
Misaligning mechanisms considered essential for the success achievement of any proposed activities that could be implemented, can obviously spoil development; anticipated outcomes that can lead to expected benefits to the poor rural will be negated. Exposure to such type alternative is paramount to get people support for one thing. On the other, technical support to ensure continued operations is another, but then this will hinge largely on rural people’s acceptance, those who are expected to maintain a sustainable level of raw production. Government blessing to green-light this is essential for sure before anything else could be done. A tentative 1% mix has already been accepted by KOIL during one Task Force meeting on CNO use.
Mitigating the challenges of bio-fuel electrification projects in Solomon islands must begin with the appropriate legislation in place to implement and support rural electrification .The development of strategic partnership between government , private sectors, NGO'S and donors must exist in researching, developing, promoting and supporting the provision of bio-fuel generating electricity in rural areas .Donors must be more flexible in their funding arrangements to allow the research and development of local based energy sources like coconut bio-fuel to be used in the country
One of the policies or rather strategies outlined in the Vanuatu National Energy Policy Framework is to encourage farmers to work together with Agriculture Department in planting more productive coconut trees.
Currently, there a few projects on biofuel by different activist without complying to any particular standards.
A successful approach undertaken in
Embedding this type of business model within a community creates a great foundation for other energy initiatives such as crop based fuels which will further enhance local job and training opportunities. The business model for private enterprise undertaking this type of work does however require strong government energy policies, frameworks and electricity price support mechanisms for this model to work.